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Open Access Open Badges Research

In Vitro assessment of the nutritive value of expanded soybean meal for dairy cattle

Eman A Elwakeel1, Evan C Titgemeyer2*, Zongjia J Cheng3, Abdelaziz M Nour1 and Mohamed EA Nasser1

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Animal & Fish Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, Alexandria 21545, Egypt

2 Department of Animal Sciences and Industry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA

3 American Soybean Association-International Marketing, Beijing, China

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Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology 2012, 3:10  doi:10.1186/2049-1891-3-10

Published: 20 March 2012


Little information is available about the nutritive value of expanded soybean meal, which is produced by expansion of soybeans prior to solvent extraction of the oil. During processing, expanded soybean meal is subjected to additional heat, which might increase the concentration of ruminally undegraded protein. Processing of soybeans with heat during oil extraction could affect lysine availability by increasing ruminally undegraded protein or by impairing intestinal digestion. Our objective was to compare solvent and expanded soybeans with regard to chemical composition and nutritive value for dairy cattle. Samples of expanded soybean meal (n = 14) and solvent-extracted soybean meal (n = 5) were obtained from People's Republic of China to study effects of the expansion process on nutritive value for dairy cattle. Solvent-extracted soybean meal (n = 2) and mechanically extracted (heated) soybean meal (n = 2) from the United States served as references for comparison. Samples were analyzed for crude fat, long-chain fatty acids, crude protein, amino acids, chemically available lysine, in situ ruminal protein degradation, and in vitro intestinal digestibility. No differences were found between solvent-extracted soybean meals from China and expanded soybean meals from China for crude fat, crude protein, amino acids, or chemically available lysine. In situ disappearance of nitrogen, ruminally undegraded protein content, and in vitro intestinal digestion of the ruminally undegraded protein were generally similar between solvent-extracted soybean meals made in China and expanded soybean meals made in China; variation among soybean meals was small. Results indicate that the additional heat from the expansion process was not great enough to affect the nutritive value of soybean meal protein for ruminants. Although expansion may improve the oil extraction process, the impact on the resulting soybean meal is minimal and does not require consideration when formulating ruminant diets.

Digestibility; Escape; Lysine; Protein; Rumen